1. Site selection
Ma bamboo used to be mostly planted on the sides of ditches, brooks, foothills, and in the front and back of the village. It is scattered and inconvenient for scientific management and has low yield. In order to achieve high-yield, high-quality, and high-efficiency, new development of bamboo shoot bases should be planned and constructed with convenient transportation, slightly acidic soil (pH 4.5~6.2), and deep and fertile red soil contiguous early fields or gentle slopes. Garden, contiguous planting. The convenient transportation of the bamboo garden is conducive to the unified implementation of cultivation and management techniques, and the timely release of fresh bamboo shoots on the market or processing, so as to prevent the fresh bamboo shoots from staying too long and deteriorating. Green bamboo can be cultivated intensively or sporadically.
Due to the particularity of the growth of green bamboo, it is very important to make the soil loose and deep. It is better to choose a place below 500 meters above sea level and full of sunshine. The soil is loose and fertile, deep soil layer, drainage. Convenient river pond bank, hilly foot Or the front and back of the house as a bamboo garden. The soil quality is preferably acid to neutral sandy loam, sandy soil, red soil or yellow-red soil, which is rich in humus, especially the alluvial soil on both sides of rivers. Other soils can also be planted, but clay soil is not suitable for planting. For planting on flat land and gentle slopes, the soil should be prepared in an all-round way to improve soil performance; if it is not possible to prepare the soil in a comprehensive way, it should be prepared in strips or blocks, and dig holes in advance.
Sweet Dragon Bamboo is suitable for planting on loose, deep, fertile, moist flat land or gentle slope land. It is best to focus on planting, with an area of more than 3 hectares, to facilitate management and generate scale benefits. After selecting the plot, perform calibration and site preparation. The site preparation time is from November to January of the following year. The site preparation method requires full reclamation or strip reclamation, removing all weeds and shrubs on the garden, and carrying out comprehensive site preparation (flat slope terrain) or reverse slope terraced field preparation (gentle slope terrain), and then combine Build terraces or walk around the mountains and dig holes between the rows.
According to the topography and topography, the ground should be prepared in an all-round way, and road construction and supporting drainage and irrigation systems should be completed 45 meters apart. It is required to cultivate a depth of 25-30 cm, apply basic fertilizer during land preparation, apply 2 to 3 tons of organic fertilizer per 667 square meters, mix 100 kg of superphosphate, and plow into the soil. Use reverse slope terraces for land preparation in autumn and winter on gentle slopes. The reverse slope terraces are 3 to 4 meters wide, and the ground-breaking surface is inclined inward with an internal inclination of about 3°. Large stones, tree roots and grass roots are removed. In winter, prepare the ground carefully according to planting specifications, turn the soil 20~30 cm, and turn the topsoil and turf mud into the bottom layer to create good soil, water, fertilizer, air and heat conditions. When organic fertilizers such as green manures are decomposed, choose to plant them in spring, which is conducive to the growth of the root system of bamboo and promotes its early growth and rapid growth.
2. Reasonable dense planting
Hemp bamboo shoot base should pay great attention to planting specifications, only reasonable close planting can win: high yield per unit area. At present, Ma bamboo is generally planted in 33 to 42 clusters per 667 square meters, and the high-yield bamboo shoots are mostly planted in a size of 4 meters X 4 meters, and appropriate adjustments are made according to the topography of dry land and mountain slopes. Generally, it is planted on flat or gentle slopes, and the row spacing can be 3 meters X 4 meters or 4 meters X 4 meters. According to this requirement, 40-50 plants should be planted per 667 square meters, but the number of plants should be reduced on hillsides. In order to make the forest into production as soon as possible, about 67 plants can be planted per 667 square meters, and the row spacing is 2.6 meters X 3 meters. Prepare the ground and dig the hole about half a month before planting. The hole specifications are: the length and width of the hole surface are both 60 cm and the depth is 50 cm. After the hole is dug, let it be exposed to the sun for about half a month, backfill the topsoil to the bottom of the hole, and apply enough base fertilizer. The base fertilizer is late-acting cake fertilizer, and each hole is about 1 kg rapeseed cake fertilizer or 0.5 kg compound fertilizer or phosphate fertilizer. Or apply 50-100 kilograms of organic fertilizer to each hole and mix it with the topsoil evenly. After about 1 week, it will be planted. Pay attention that no unripe farm manure should be placed in the hole.
Green bamboo is generally digging holes at a plant spacing of 4 to 5 meters, and usually 33 to 35 clusters are cut per 667 square meters. Dig the hole 1 meter long and 1 meter wide, and 0.8-1 meter deep. Separate the topsoil and core soil, break the soil, pick up rocks, tree roots, and grass roots, and let the sun expose for 1 to 2 months to fully mature the soil. On the roadside and riverside, dig holes directly at a spacing of 4 to 5 meters. The size is 60 cm X 50 cm X 50 cm. The topsoil core soil is divided open and exposed to the sun to fully mature the soil. Backfill the topsoil 15 to 30 days before cutting, backfill the topsoil to 3/4 of the depth of the hole, apply 20 kg of pond mud or decomposed manure to each hole, and mix it with the soil as a base fertilizer, with the topsoil on the bottom and the subsoil on the top.
When returning to the topsoil, add 20-25 kg of decomposed organic fertilizer and 500 g of compound fertilizer to each hole, and mix well with the soil. The planting density of Tianlong bamboo is 33~55 clusters per 667 square meters, and the row spacing is 3~4 meters X 4~5 meters. The reasonable planting density is 42 clusters per 667 square meters, and the row spacing is 4 meters X 4 meters. If the density is too dense, the standing bamboos will squeeze each other, the ventilation and sunlight conditions in the forest are poor, the ground humidity is low, the plant diseases and insect pests are serious, the yield of bamboo shoots is low, the bamboo quality is poor, and the bamboo shoots are prone to decline; The number of mother bamboos is small, and the yield of bamboo shoots per unit area is low. According to the survey, every 667 square meters of 20-24 clusters, the number of mother bamboos is 160~227, the quality of the mother bamboos is good, the individual shoots are large, the number is large, and the output is 1.1~2 tons. 6-12 clusters per 667 square meters, the number of mother bamboos is 48-120, the quality of the mother bamboos is average, the bamboo shoots are low, and the output is only 0.5-0.83 tons. If the density is too high, 30-40 clusters per 667 square meters, and the number of mother bamboos is 300-480, the quality of the mother bamboos is poor, with small old bamboos and deformed bamboos accounting for 30%-50%, and bamboo shoots withdrawn 40%. The amount is only 0.24~0.45 tons, the individual bamboo shoots are small and the quality is poor.
It is advisable to select high-quality and strong seedlings for planting. The high-quality and strong seedlings of sweet bamboo shoots mainly include bamboo seedlings, bamboo stalk seedlings and bamboo branch seedlings cultivated in the nursery. Nursery bamboo seedlings have the advantages of well-developed root system, wide source of materials, large amount of seedlings, large reproduction, fast growth, low cost, high survival rate, fast out of the circle, convenient transportation, and does not affect the yield of bamboo shoots that year. It is suitable for large-scale planting. Cultivate high-quality bamboo seedlings. There are also high-quality mother bamboos directly selected from high-yield bamboo gardens as seedlings; in areas with abundant provenance, they are also directly planted with bamboo branches with obvious roots and full bud eyes.
(1) Transplanting with bamboo seedlings with bamboo seedlings with fully lignified and well-developed roots 7-12 months old female bamboo as bamboo seedlings. When digging the mother bamboo seedlings, peel off the topsoil of the mother bamboo stalks, find the connection point between the bamboo seedlings and the old bamboo stalk base, cut it off with a sharp knife (be careful not to tear the stalk and the stalk base), and even dig the bamboo stalks with soil Do not damage the shoots of the stalk base during the excavation process, less damage the roots, and keep the root system as much as possible, and use a knife to cut off the stalks at 40-50 cm away from the base. , In order to reduce the evaporation of water, which is conducive to survival. When the stalk is connected to the stalk base with a knife, it is especially necessary to prevent the stalk from tearing and damage to the bud eye.
When planting, do not plant the bamboo stalks diagonally on the reverse side or plant them upright, because the roots of the bamboo planted diagonally stretch naturally, the buds on both sides of the stalk base are in a horizontal position, and the distance between the side buds and shoots to grow into new bamboos is larger, which is beneficial to survival. After the bamboo seedlings are placed, fill the soil. The planting depth of the mother bamboo seedlings is 30-40 cm, and the covering soil is 5-10 cm higher than the original mother bamboo seedlings. The upper part of the mother bamboo seedlings should have 5-6 sections exposed to the topsoil. The surrounding area is covered with loose soil and compacted, the soil is cultivated into a steamed bun shape, and covered with grass to keep moisture. When planting with soil seedlings, fill the soil layer by layer, and cover it with a layer of loose soil in the shape of a steamed bun to protect moisture. Bare-rooted seedlings should be planted in accordance with the technical requirements of "three burying, two treading and one raising seedlings" to ensure that the seedlings are upright, rooted and stable. Water enough root water after planting, and water again in drought.
(2) Bamboo stalk seedlings are transplanted and cultivated by burying stalks. Seedlings should be 1-2 year-old bamboo seedlings with strong growth, luxuriant branches and leaves, no pests and diseases, strong bud eyes, well-developed roots, and 2.5-3.5 cm diameter at breast height. Leave 2~3 branches of the bamboo seedlings and cut off some of the stalks. When the seedlings emerge, they should open the soil around the base of the bamboo seedling stalks, find the saw cut (or cut), use a hoe or a machete to cut the bamboo stalks, and then Trench the bamboo seedlings 15 cm deep and 20-30 cm deep, and then dig a few times from the other side of the seedlings with a hoe to start the seedlings.
The planting time is better in late spring or autumn. It should be cloudy or rainy. Before planting, apply basal fertilizer to the bottom of bamboo hole and mix it with topsoil. When planting, the bamboo stalk seedlings are moved and filled. Return to the topsoil hole, so that the bud eyes on both sides of the bamboo stalk base are placed horizontally and planted at an angle of 30°~45° in the natural growth state. The bamboo stalks are placed obliquely on the front, and the incision is upward to receive and store rainwater. When planting, do not place the stalks on the reverse side or plant them upright. After the bamboo seedlings are placed, fill the soil and cut the planting depth to 25~30 cm. The covering soil is about 5. cm higher than the original mother bamboo seedlings’ depth traces. There should be 3~4 sections on the upper end of the bamboo seedlings to expose the topsoil. Cover grass moisturizing. When planting with soil seedlings, fill the soil layer by layer and pour enough water for root setting.
(3) Transplanting bamboo shoots. Transplanting bamboo shoots by raising seedlings on a seedling bed. Cut off all the leaves and most of the branches when the seedlings are raised. The height of the bamboo shoots should be 60~100 cm. ~2 kg, every 10~20 bamboo seedlings should be packed in woven bags for transportation. If there is no soil, apply thin mud to the roots to prevent the roots from losing water and ensure the survival of the bamboo shoots.
High-position pressed bamboo seedlings are planted, and the seedlings can be planted throughout the year as long as the temperature and moisture conditions are suitable, especially the nutrient bag nursery, which has a high survival rate. 1-year-old seedlings can be planted out of the nursery, with a survival rate of more than 90% , 3-4 new bamboo shoots can germinate in the year of planting, with a diameter of 2.7-3.1 cm. For transplanting bamboo shoots, the planting depth is 20-25 cm, and the soil covering is 3~5 cm higher than the original mother bamboo seedling depth trace; if it is bagged seedlings, the soil covering is 3~5 cm higher than the original bagged seedling soil depth trace during planting It is advisable to cultivate the soil into a steamed bun shape, and cover the grass to keep moisture. When the seedlings are planted, the bagged soil is preserved, the soil is layered and solid, and the root water is poured enough.
(4) The lush sweet bamboo shoots are planted by cuttings. The main branches are well-developed. When the thickness is 1~3 cm, the branches are like bamboo shoots, with 3~4 shoot buds and many root primordia, just like shrunken mother bamboos. For direct planting. For branch cutting planting, the selection of branches is a major step. The branches should be strong, bright green, and the branches should be grown for 1 to 1.5 years. The roots of the branches are obvious, the buds are full, and the strong main branches are free of diseases and insect pests. Do not damage the branches or expose to the sun when taking the branches. For long-distance transportation, use running water to soak for 3-12 hours to restore vitality.
Insert 3 bamboo seedlings obliquely into each hole in the shape of "product", with a depth of 8-12 cm. Cover with a layer of loose soil, leave a section of open soil and cover with grass to prevent sunlight. Generally, cuttings occur when the rainy season comes from May to June. In that year, 20% to 40% of the bamboo shoots can be shoots, and all the bamboo shoots are shooted into clusters the following year. If cutting in February to March, you should dig deep and low cutting. The seedling point is 10~25 cm lower than the ground surface. After planting, water 50~80 liters of each plant, cover with grass, and plant in low temperature areas, above the hole. Put a small arch canopy to keep warm and moisturize. After 15~30 days, the bamboo branches will sprout and take root, depending on the temperature change! With the removal of agricultural film, the survival rate of cuttings can reach 60%~80%, and it saves labor and time, low cost, and rapid growth.